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The construction of the Berlin Wall started on 13 August 1961. When finished, it was 106 km long and 3.6 metres high, made out of concrete with lots of barbed wire and extra fences, alongside an impressive 302 watch towers. There were only 8 possible crossings between East and West Berlin, the most famous of which was "Checkpoint Charlie". The Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989 after 28 years. The Wall was a monument to the separated Germany and a symbol of the Cold War. Its fall and the subsequent collapse of the GDR was a surprise to many.