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To be sterile can both mean to be 100% free of micro organisms and to be infertile. Sterilisation is a medical procedure whereby fertile men and women are deliberately rendered infertile. In women, you normally cut the fallopian tubes. In men, the tubes which connect the testicles to the prostate are cut and closed. A sterile woman cannot bear children. Likewise, a sterile man cannot impregnate a woman.